Workshop on Caprinae taxonomy
List of speakers:
Rob Roy Ramey, Denver Museum of Natural History:
A synthesis of current knowledge of Ovis taxonomy
I will present an overview of recent work on the evolution of Ovis,
as well as results from our analysis of sequence data from the
gene obtained from sampling across the geographic range of Ovis. Of major significance to the conservation of endangered species, subspecies, and
populations of wild sheep in Asia and North America, is the fact that much of the currently accepted subspecific taxonomy of wild sheep is not
congruent with the new molecular data and lacks an evolutionary basis. This systematics work is important to identifying the units of conservation.
The molecular data are in conflict with the traditional view that there is a "great arc of the wild sheep". Instead, Ovis appears to be derived from two clades: a Mouflon/Urial/Argali clade and a Snow/Dall/Bighorn clade. Of significance to the accuracy of other conservation genetic and evolutionary studies of the Caprinae involving mtDNA, we have discovered cases of integration of mitochondrial DNA sequences into the nuclear genome. These results show that phylogenetic and population genetic analyses based on mtDNA control region and ribosomal sequences may be problematic relative to protein coding genes because of the difficulty in detecting the presence of nuclear paralogs.
Gordon Luikart, Nathalie Pidancier, Jean-Francois Martin and Pierre Taberlet, CNRS Grenoble:
Molecular genetics, systematics and conservation of Capra taxa
We will synthesize the published molecular data relevant to Capra systematics and suggest future directions for genetics research in view of recent advances in DNA technology and statistical methodologies. The evolutionary history and relationships among Capra species are difficult to resolve because of their relatively recent origin, rapid speciation and possible secondary hybridization among taxa. Evolutionary trees constructed from mitochondrial (mt) DNA and Y-chromosome sequences both divide Capra species into two highly divergent groups of taxa. However these groups do not have the same species composition. For the mtDNA trees, C. <ibex> sibirica represents one group while the second group contains all other species (C. hircus, C. falconeri, C. aegagrus, C. pyrenaica, C. i. ibex, C. i. nubiana, C. i. caucasica, C. cylindricornis). For the Y-chromosome data, the two groups consisted of C. aegagrus, C. falconeri, C. hircus; and the others. These data (combined with the fossil record) suggest a possible evolutionary scenario consisting of two main ancestral Capra taxa, with one originating in East Asia and the second perhaps in the Near/Far east. The discordant results between mtDNA and Y-chromosome groupings might be explained by hybridization of different taxa during the evolutionary history of Capra. These results are very preliminary and subject to change because only a few individuals from very few wild populations have been sampled. Some research needs for the immediate future are (i) sampling of more DNA, e.g. from feces and hunter-kills or winter-kills (as the necessary molecular analysis approaches are already available) and (ii) data analyses combining molecular information with data on morphology, ecology, demography, and geography. The collection procedure for all these data should be standardized across countries
Sandro Lovari, Università di Siena:
Conservation and systematics of Rupicaprins: the costs of elusiveness
Ettore Randi and Nadia Miucci, Italian Institute of Wildlife Biology:
A molecular phylogeny of the Caprinae
Recent studies on molecular phylogenetic relationships among
Artiodactyla have included limited samples of Caprinae. Although
monophyly of the subfamily was usually supported, most of these
studies showed low resolution and no support to the three tribes
(Ovibovini, Rupicaprini, Caprini) that are recognized by
traditional classifications. Thus, DNA sequences seem to confirm
early findings based on allozyme electrophoresis, and suggest
that the basal lineages among caprins might have diverged rapidly
following an instant evolutionary radiation. In order to resolve
"star-shaped" trees it is advisable to obtain longer
DNA sequences. So, we have sequenced the entire mtDNA cytochrome
b and control-region genes, and the entire exon IV from the
nuclear k-casein gene (for a total of about 3.000 nucleotides),in
a comprehensive sample set of caprins. Phylogenetic analyses
support the monophyly of two basal lineages, including the South
East Asian rupicaprins and Rupicapra, respectively. Ovis
and Capra (plus Pseudois and Hemitragus)
are two monophyletic and more derived lineages.
The monophyly of the Ovibovini is definitely disrupted, being Ovibos related to the goral, and Budorcas distantly related to Rupicapra.
Relationships of Oreamnos and Ammotragus are uncertain. Once again, this extended data set suggests that the Caprinae evolved rapidly.
John Wehausen, White Mountains Research Station, California, and Rob Roy Ramey:
Morphometric analysis of North American sheep; an example of the value of morphometry in the molecular age
Past morphometric studies that served as the basis of
taxonomies have often suffered from poor samplings, inadequate
analytical methods, and a lack of criteria for taxonomic
decisions, particularly below the species level.
Modern morphometrics has corrected these shortcomings through a better understanding and application of sampling theory, multivariate analytical techniques, and criteria for subspecies that have an evolutionary basis. Recently it has been suggested that subspecies should represent major subdivisions of gene pool diversity of a species that can be supported by concordant patterns of multiple traits that are independent and genetically based. We have applied this definition to North American wild sheep by adding cranial morphometric analyses to patterns of mtDNA variation to test long-standing taxonomic relationships. We have found substantial concordance between cranial morphometic and mtDNA patterns, but these patterns have not supported most of the traditional taxonomy. Our findings suggest that morphometric analyses can continue to play an important role in taxonomic questions by serving as a complement to appropriate molecular data.
Michael Frisina and Dennis Campbell, Argali Conservation International, and Lajia Cairen, China Wildlife Conservation Association:
Enhancing conservation of Caprinae using geographic areas to define trophy types
Wild sheep and goats follow two different systems of classification; the Taxonomic classification used by science and the trophy type classifications used by hunters. There is no general agreement among either scientists or hunters as to a commonly accepted classification for all species in either system. Whether scientist or hunter, the classification of Caprinae is controversial and will likely remain so. Although the designation of trophy types generally follows science-based taxonomy, trophy categories frequently deviate. This usually occurs as a result of differences in size of animals among different populations of what are scientifically considered the same species and/or subspecies. The observed differences are typically in size and a result of habitat differences for populations residing in different geographic localities. In some of the more extreme cases, species that are considered goats by science are included in the wild sheep trophy groupings used by hunting organizations. It is not necessary that the classification of wild sheep and goats used by hunters and scientists be identical. Actually, a classification of trophy types that considers differences in populations due to variations in habitat quality is occurring and is contributing to the conservation of Caprinae. By generating public interest and providing additional opportunities for hunters, funds are generated that finance wildlife conservation. Specific examples are given.
Raul Valdez, New Mexico State University:
Systematics and taxonomy of moufloniform sheep
Moufloniform sheep, consisting of two species (Ovis gmelinii and O. vignei), constitute the most anatomically and chromosomally (54 to 58) diverse subgenus of wild sheep in the world. They occur in montane habitats and undulating foothills in southwestern Asia. O. gmelinii, with three subspecies, occur in Turkey, Iraq, northwestern Iran, and Cyprus. O. vignei or urials, with four subspecies, occur in eastern Iran, Afghanistan, northwestern India, Turkmenistan, Tadjikistan, and Kazakhstan. They are variable in horn curl shape, bib presence and color, neck ruff size and color, and saddle patch presence and configuration. O. gmelinii possess 54 chromosomes and urials possess 58 chromosomes. Where the two species are sympatric in northcentral Iran, they hybridize as evidenced by hybrid anatomical and chromosomal features in the hybrid zone. The hybrid zone probably occurs the length of central Iran where some populations have stabilized chromosomally and anatomically. The complex systematics of moufloniforms will require detailed chromosomal and DNA studies to resolve evolutionary processes and population relationships.
Paul I. Weinberg, North Ossetian Nature Reserve, Russia:
Morphological traits in Capra taxonomy
In order to enlighten the confused and contradictory classification within Capra, it might be useful to study evolutionary trends in morphology of the genus. For that purpose, all the admitted extant wild Capra species and subspecies have been regarded as taxa of indefinite ranking. Different morphotypes have been distinguished, basing upon, firstly, shape of horn sheath and core cross-section and curvature, and secondly, pattern of pelage coloration. Adult male horn morphotypes are: aegagrus and falconeri; pyrenaica, ibex, caucasica and cylindricornis. The second and the third groups are close one to another and are probably subgroups. These groups/subgroups correspond roughly to the cross-sectional shape of adult female horns. It is more difficult to distinguish coloration pattern morphotypes, but nevertheless, all taxa can be distributed into three groups again by the absence or presence of stripes over the eyes in juveniles, by the shape of pattern on the legs in all age and sex class, and by the presence or absence of a striped pattern on the body of adult males: 1) aegagrus and falconeri; 2) nubiana and sibirica; 3) ibex, caucasica, and cylindricornis. The place of pyrenaica morphotype seems indefinite in both systems. The two systems are alike in general, though differ in certain details. Two trends are evident in evolution of morphological features of Capra. The complexity of horns, primarily those of adult males, increased gradually. They changed from laterally compressed to oval with a well-pronounced anterior clashing surface, and then to triangular or sub-triangular. Secondly, the complex pattern of coat markings gradually reduced, animals assuming a monotonous coloration. Adult males became different from females not in their striped pattern but in general colorationlighter or darker.
Gordon Luikart, CNRS Grenoble:
Analysis of microsatellite DNA data: an analytical and statistical revolution
Advances in molecular and statistical technology now allow the extraction of information from wildlife populations in ways unimaginable just 5-10 years ago. I will provide a brief overview of recent improvements in methods for obtaining and analysing genetic data that can help implement conservation and monitoring programs for ungulates. Obtaining genetic data has been greatly facilitated by the development of non-invasive genetic sampling methods. Such methods, based on PCR (polymerase chain reaction), allow retrieval of DNA from scat, urine, hair or saliva without having to capture, disturb or even observe the animal . Microsatellites are currently the preferred DNA marker in population genetics because of their high levels of variability, relative ease of scoring, codominant inheritance, transferability across genera, and short length making them useful for studies of partially-degraded DNA from museum skins, feces etc. Non-invasive sampling can provide increased sample sizes and reduced trapping bias, but can also introduce serious genotyping errors.
Statistical analysis of population genetic data is being improved by new individual-based tests (e.g., "assignment tests") and the adoption of maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and coalescent methods. I will present empirical examples of the types of information on population parameters provided by new methods. These include information on individual identification (DNA "fingerprinting"), population size and effective population size, change in population size (present and historical), dispersal and migration (present and historical), inbreeding level (population and individual levels), parentage and relatedness (e.g., paternity exclusion), taxonomy and hybridization, and finally forensics applications. Population genetics is currently in the early stages of a revolution in molecular and statistical technology. Thus, it is an exciting time to be molecular ecologist.
Victor N. Orlov and Andrey E. Subbotin, Russian Academy of Sciences
Open questions of infraspecific taxa diagnosys of wild sheep (Ovis ammon) sensu lato.
Chromosome mutations are the markers of three monophyletic taxa of Ovis ammon s. lato, which are usually considered as distinct species. Most subspecies do not have special morphological or genetic diagnosis. For the last 50 years there is no revision of intraspecific variability of Ovis ammon published and based on museum collections data. In taxonomy of this group methods of multivariate craniometry and analyses of mt-DNA are not used. The reality of differences between some subspecies forms is discussed in this paper. The examples of use of investigation methods of multivariate craniometry in taxonomy of Wild Sheep are listed. It is important to note that to our mind intraspecific phylogenetic relationships of Wild Sheep must be determined based on mithochondrial DNA haplotypes only. The use of molecular analyses methods will increase the number of subspecies of Ovis ammon. Nowadays more and more data becomes available which shows that polytypic species of mammals (like Ovis ammon) are consisted of unique gene taxons, connected by narrow hybrid zones. Origin of such infraspecific taxa can be explained by species range changes in Pleistocene and Holocene, by origin of temporary small isolates and fixation of gene and chromosome mutations. As each of these taxa is unique its loss cannot be made up as the loss of good biological species.
Florent Rivals, Centre Européen de Recherches Préhistoriques de Tautavel, CNRS UMR 5590, Université de Perpignan, France:
Middle Pleistocene Caprinae in the West Mediterranean area
The study of Caprinae fossils from the Caune de l'Arago and Orgnac 3 caves, two prehistoric sites, help us to understand Caprinae distribution during the Middle Pleistocene. Three genera are present: Ovis (wild sheep), Hemitragus (tahr) and Rupicapra (chamois). The most extensive fossils in the Caune de l'Arago are Ovis with four complete crania. A study of horn cores allowed us to attribute them to Ovis ammon antiqua. This species is abundant in the Caune de l'Arago in 440,000 years old levels but disappears abruptly in the levels above, about 400,000 years ago. Hemitragus is represented in the two sites by the same species: Hemitragus bonali. This species is present in Europe at the end of the Early Pleistocene up to 300,000 years ago in Orgnac 3. Holocene populations of Hemitragus only extant in South-East Asia and in the South of the Arabian Peninsula. H. bonali is morphologically different from the present population. Rupicapra is represented by sparse remains in the two sites. At present, Rupicapra seems to appear in the west European area around 440,000 years ago at the Caune de l'Arago. These remains cannot be attributed to either of the two species R. rupicapra or R. pyrenaica. Tahr and wild sheep do not seem to have been adapted to high mountain biotopes. In fact, the tahr settles in an area between the Alps and the Pyrenees. The reason for the disappearance of the wild sheep seems to be a rise of temperature after 400,000 years ago. The arrival of Rupicapra takes place during a period of important faunal migration bring about a drop in temperature. The three species lived in abrupt rocky areas at less than 500 m altitude near the two sites. The Caprinae are very dependant on their biotope and sensitive to climatic and topographic factors. The association of these species in these two Western Mediterranean sites allows us to understand the Pleistocene ecosystem and the current species distribution.
Celia Maudet and Gordon Luikart, CNRS Grenoble, France:
Microsatellite DNA, population management and demographic history of Alpine ibex (Capra ibex).
The wild goat (ibex) of the European Alps nearly suffered
extinction in the 1880's. Many reintroductions have been (and
still are being) conducted. The
demographic history of the past transplants is well documented. Thus, ibex populations are useful for evaluating statistical methods for inferring
demographic history from molecular data. We analyzed microsatellite DNA variation to (i) help guide translocation programs and (ii) evaluate new
statistical methods to identify bottlenecked populations and to reconstruct population relationships. Only 30 microsatellites were polymorphic among 80 tested. Nineteen of these loci were analyzed in 30 individuals from each of the 6 most important populations. Variability was low (heterozygosity 0.41-0.43; alleles/locus 2.3-2.5). The highest variability was in the Italian population (the progenitor of all extant populations). One serially-bottlenecked population did not have significantly reduced variation, consistent with theory and empirical studies of bottlenecks of short-duration. Bottleneck signatures (heterozygosity-excess) were detected in 5 of 6 populations using published tests. We are comparing the reliability of the published tests to that of new (Bayesian) tests.
Population relationships (known from reintroduction data) were not reconstructed accurately using classical allele frequency phenograms. Therefore we will evaluate other methods (Bayesian, maximum likelihood) to improve our ability to reconstruct population histories.
Hsueh-Wen Chang, Chung-Chi Hwang, Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun-Yat Sen University, Kaohsiung; and Yu-Yu Qun, Shannxi Institute of Zoology, Xi'an, China:
Molecular phylogeny among argali (Ovis ammon) subspecies from China
Vladimir Shakula, Aksu-Jabagli nature reserve, Kazakhstan
Assessment of population status and taxonomic problems for the Caprinae in Western Tien Shan and Kyzylkum Desert
In the mountains of Kyzylkum desert and Western Tien Shan there are three subspecies of wild sheep: Severtsov's argalil or Kizil-kum mountain sheep - Ovis ammon severtzovi, Tien-Shan mountain sheep - O.a. karellini and Karatau mountain sheep - O.a. nigrimontana. Recently, the last two subspecies have suffered a sharp decline in numbers as a result of unfavourable ecological situation, worsening of socio-economical conditions and unsustainable use of natural resources. Ovis ammon karellini In summer this subspecies is under the protection in the nature reserve, but during migration and wintering on Karatau range Tien-Shan mountain sheep is under the pressure of poaching (uncontrolled hunting). In the 1950's the nature reserve population was estimated at about 670 sheep, but by the 1990's only 50-90 argalis remained. Ovis ammon nigrimontana - is an endemic species of Syrdarya Karatau range. Its number declined catastrophically. Surveys in 1992-1999 within the Karatau there found only about 100 animals. But, on the Karatau range, there is a zone of hybridisation. In this zone there are found either hybrids between Tien-Shan and Karatau mountain sheep, either only Tien-Shan, either unknown taxonomically to the present argali. Number of argali in this zone rather high in spite of intensive hunting, grazing of live-stock and other human disturbance. Sufficient survey in this area was not provided for the last years, but on the data of local hunting inspection there are occurred about 2,000 individuals. Ovis ammon severtzovi - in Nuratau nature reserve. During last 20 years the population appears to have increased despite live-stock grazing, agricultural use of their habitat and poaching. Total estimates increased from 800-1200 in the 1980's to 2000 a decade later. In Kazakhstan, within the small mountains of north-eastern Kyzylkum, the Kyzylkum mountain sheep has disappeared.
It is known that Tien Shan mountain sheep on its cariotype is concerned to the argali group (2n = 56). We defined that Kizilkum mountain sheep has also such chromosome composition (set) (2n = 56) (Shakula, Snitko, Kaumov 1994). But taxonomic status of Karatau mountain sheep needs confirmation. Besides that, to the present it is unknown the taxonomic status of other mountain sheep inhabits in Karatau range. It's possible to suppose the presence in this region of new subspecies - Ovis polii nassonovi Laptev, 1929 - which was described for the Talas Alatau, but it was not recognised by scientists owing to loss of type specimens. It would be necessary also to clear the present status of Kyzylkum mountain sheep. In most part of the reviews it is shown for the Nuratau range and small mountains in Kyzylkum desert. However, there are some references about its presence in Turkestan, Zeravshan and Alay ranges of Pamiro-Alay mountain system (!) (Sapozhnikov 1976). Early for this area there was shown only Bukhara mountain sheep - Ovis orientalis bochariensis Nasonov, 1914. If Sapozhnikov is right and in the mentioned above range there is inhabited the Kyzylkum sheep (O.a.severtzovi), this fact will change knowledge about not only range, assessment of number, but also even the principles of protection.
Capra is present in Western Tien Shan and within its part - Aksu-Jabagly nature reserve by local subspecies Capra (ibex) sibirica formosovi, (Zalkin 1950). Several researchers did not recognise this subspecies and contend that all ibex can be divided on two groups: Capra sibirica sibirica in Southern Siberia, Northern Mongolia and Altay, and Capra sibirica sakeen in all other area of species range (Flerov 1935).
Gila Kahila (1), Patricia Smith (2), Eitan Tchernov (3), Charles Greenblatt (1) and Liora Kolska Horwitz (3)
Re-introduction of wild goats: a case study of the agrimi (Capra aegagrus cretica) in Israel
(1) Kuvin Center for the study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, The Hebrew University, Israel. (2) Laboratory of Bioanthropology and ancient DNA, The Hebrew University, Israel. (3) Department of Evolution, Systematics and Ecology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
Alexander V.Esipov, Elena A. Kreuzberg-Mukhina andElena A. Bykova, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Uzbekistan
Modern status of wild Caprins in Uzbekistan
All Caprinae in Uzbekistan, excluding ibex, are rare and threatened.
Capra sibirica is widely distributed and is the traditional object of trophy hunting on licences. Limiting factors on the number and distribution of ibex are poaching (which appears higher than the official hunting bag), overgrazing by live-stock and development of agriculture. Ibex occurs in three nature reserves (Chatkal, Zaamin and Gissar) and two national parks (Ugam-Chatkal and Zaamin) with total square 7521.3 sq. km.
Capra falconeri in Uzbekistan is nearly extinct, about 300-400 are left including about 86 in Surkhan nature reserve in 1993. Limiting factors are poaching (including foreign trophy hunting distributed during last ten years), habitat loss and direct displacement from the pastures by cattle, overgrazing of mountain ecosystems. Markhor is protected in Surkhan nature reserve (276.7 sq.km).
Ovis vignei arcal - Numbers may range from 100 to 300 individuals, but no recent census is available. The main limiting factors are poaching, industrial and agricultural development of habitats and disturbance. Hunting is forbidden, but there are no protected areas or antipoaching controls.
Ovis vignei severtzovi is relatively stable in numbers and reintroduction within historic range is a possibility. In 1983-1993 from 385 to 968 Kizil-kum sheep were counted in Nuratau nature reserve, and total number was assessted from 700 to 1900 individuals. For other territories information is absent. Main limiting factors are poaching (including foreign trophy hunting), [but for the last years no licences were issued], overgrazing of pastures by livestock, direct force out by human settlements. The size of nature reserves decreased from 340 to 177.5 sq.km. The seasonal migration routes of Severtsov's Urial are not protected.
Ovis vignei bocharensis is under threat of extinction in Uzbekistan. The last assessment is about 300 individuals. In 1991-1993 from 5 to 14 were counted in the Surkhan nature reserve. Limiting factors are poaching and grazing of domestic cattle.
Ovis ammon karelini is almost extinct in Uzbekistan. It is observed regularly near Aksu-Jabagly nature reserve, but no population estimate is available.
Some monitoring work (annual censuses) is provided in nature reserves but is not available to researchers. The methods of census are not perfect and cannot be correct. Data on numbers of hunting licences and information on poaching are available for the special use (inside special authorities). Caprinae in Uzbekistan are vulnerable. Threats include poaching by hunters and herdsmen for meat, overgrazing and competition with livestock. The main species for trophy hunting is the ibex, but there are cases of hunt on threatened markhor and Severtsov's Urial in 1992 - 1998. There were taken few specimens, that could not influence on the population at total, but provoked the poaching of local people owing to absence of benefits from trophy hunting.
Alexander V.Esipov, Elena A. Bykova, Elena A. Kreuzberg-Mukhina, Bahtyar Oromov, Emilia V. Vashetko, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Uzbekistan
Distribution and number of
Siberian ibex in Gissar nature reserve, Uzbekistan
We studied numbers, distribution and state of Siberian ibex, Capra sibirica Pall.in spring and autumn 1999. Data were obtained by means of route counts and records of tracks, faeces, browsed plants, parts of bodies of dead animals, as well as the analysis of literature, information of corresponding agencies and questionnaries. Three parts (Kyzylsu, Miraki and Gilan) were surveyed. Kyzylsu is an area of 30,094 ha at 1800-4000 m above sea level. Siberian ibex is common in the basin of the River Kyzyldarya. It inhabits higher belts of the mountains mainly in areas with outcrops. In winter Siberian ibex descend as low as the floodland forests. Small groups were recorded in the vicinity of Village Tashkurgan. The suitable area for habitation at Kyzylsu exceeds 20,000 ha. In the floodplain of the River Kyzyldarya the numbers of ibex are estimated at 150-200 and the total numbers in this part are estimated at 400-500. Difficult access and good forage properties of Kyzylsu are the reason for the successful habitation of the populations of Siberian ibex. Miraki part is situated in NW part of the nature reserve at 1800 to 4300 m above sea level and includes 11,800 ha. Ibex are common in alpine mountains and rocks. The numbers are estimated at 150-200 animals. In summer ibex inhabit high mountains moving from one valley to another. Succulent grasses of high-mountain meadows prevail in the diet. In winter ibex descend to juniper forest, 2000 m above sea level. Gilan part is the most high-mountain site surveyed, at 2500 to 4300 m. The total area is 18,800 ha. Siberian ibex are not numerous in the basin of the River Aksu. Spring counts revealed 20-25 individuals in the basin of the River Zapadnaya Aksu. There are less than 50 Siberian ibex at this site. The limiting factors are the low quality of forage areas, competition for food with domestic animals and the stronger disturbing factor in summer. In winter the animals migrate to southern slopes of neighbouring parts of the nature reserve and beyond it (Tadjikistan). Our studies show that less than 1000 Siberian ibex inhabit Gissar nature reserve. Predators are snow leopard, wolf and lynx. The major limiting factors are aggravation of the quality of food, poaching on the nature reserve borders, disturbing factors and competition for forage with domestic animals across the border areas. We recommend creation of a buffer zone, especially on sites bordering on Tadjikistan (the Gilan part).
Elsa Gagnon, Environment Canada
CITES Identification Guide - Hunting Trophies
The accurate identification of rare and endangered species is essential to their protection and conservation. The CITES identification guides provide detailed information that facilitates the identification of most species protected under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Among this series of guides published by Environment Canada, an upcoming guide on hunting trophies deals with the identification of trophies, including those from wild sheep and goats.
Like the other guides of this series, the guide is designed for individuals responsible for enforcing CITES -customs officers, wildlife officers, police officers and inspectors - who are directly involved in controlling international shipments of goods. The guide uses a simple visual approach to allow the user to identify horns or other trophies that are or could be from a CITES listed species. It also describes the whole animal to complete the identification initiated with the horns alone, and directs the identification to experts when required. A preview to this upcoming CITES Identification Guide - Hunting Trophies will be presented.
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